What is the science behind Hiccups?

Hiccups are involuntary contractions of the diaphragm — the muscle that separates your chest from your abdomen and plays an important role in breathing. Each contraction is followed by a sudden closure of your vocal cords, which produces the characteristic “hic” sound.

Hiccups may result from a large meal, alcoholic beverages or sudden excitement. In some cases, hiccups may be a sign of an underlying medical condition. For most people, a bout of hiccups usually lasts only a few minutes. Rarely, hiccups may persist for months. This can result in malnutrition and exhaustion.

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Causes

The most common triggers for hiccups that last less than 48 hours include:

Drinking carbonated beverages
Drinking too much alcohol
Eating too much
Excitement or emotional stress
Sudden temperature changes
Swallowing air with chewing gum or sucking on candy
Hiccups that last more than 48 hours may be caused by a variety of factors, which are generally grouped into the following categories.

Nerve damage or irritation

The most common cause of long-term hiccups is damage to or irritation of the vagus nerves or phrenic nerves, which serve the diaphragm muscle.Factors that may cause damage or irritation to these nerves include:

A hair or something else in your ear touching your eardrum
A tumor, cyst or goiter in your neck
Gastroesophageal reflux
Sore throat or laryngitis
Central nervous system disorders

A tumor or infection in your central nervous system or damage to your central nervous system as a result of trauma can disrupt your body’s normal control of the hiccup reflex. Examples include:

Encephalitis
Meningitis
Multiple sclerosis
Stroke
Traumatic brain injury
Tumors
Metabolic disorders and drugs

Long-term hiccups can be triggered by:

Alcoholism
Anesthesia
Barbiturates
Diabetes
Electrolyte imbalance
Kidney failure
Steroids
Tranquilizers

Symptoms

The characteristic sound of a hiccup is the only sign. Sometimes the only symptom is a slight tightening sensation in your chest, abdomen or throat that precedes the sound.

When to see a doctor

Make an appointment to see your doctor if your hiccups last more than 48 hours or if they are so severe that they cause problems with eating, sleeping or breathing.

Risk factors

Men are much more likely to develop long-term hiccups than are women. Other factors that may increase your risk of hiccups include:

Mental or emotional issues. Anxiety, stress and excitement have been associated with some cases of short-term and long-term hiccups.
Surgery. Some people develop hiccups after undergoing general anesthesia or after procedures that involve abdominal organs.

What to do to stop hiccups

Although there’s no certain way to stop hiccups, if you have a bout of hiccups that lasts longer than a few minutes, the following home remedies may provide relief, although they are unproven:

Breathe into a paper bag
Gargle with ice water
Hold your breath
Sip cold water

Via Mayo clinic

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